If potentially significant remains are found, construction may be delayed to allow for evaluation of the site or sites found within the impacted area.
This is done to determine the archaeological site's true significance. Site mitigation can involve avoiding the site through redesigning the development or excavating only a percentage of the site. In the U. If archaeologists determine the site contains highly significant cultural remains, the adverse development effects on the site must be mitigated through a structured programme that is often long and expensive.
Mitigation can include preservation by record i. Mitigation also includes construction techniques which ensure that archaeological remains are protected in undisturbed parts of the site or even underneath the development. An example of this type of mitigation is the Viking remains at York. Important sites are designated as being protected by the state so that no development at all can take place, and governments also recommend the most important sites to be recognised as World Heritage Sites.
CHM has been a mixed blessing for archaeology.
Preservation legislation has ensured that no valuable site will be destroyed by construction without study, but the work of rescue archaeologists is sometimes controversial. Some academic archaeologists do not take archaeological rescue or salvage work seriously because of its emphasis on site identification and preservation rather than intensive study and analysis. Where archaeology is motivated by proposed development, the archaeological contracts are placed through a bidding process.
The choice of archaeological contractor typically lies with the developer and there is little incentive to prevent the company responsible for construction selecting the bid with the lowest price estimate, or shortest investigation time, regardless of the archaeological merits of the submitted bids. The impact of archaeological rescue and salvage work has been considerable; given the large amount of construction, and that the bulk of archaeological work in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom is developer led.
Unfortunately, the large number of reports written on the thousands of sites dug each year are not necessarily published in public forums. So-called grey literature is sometimes difficult for even archaeologists outside the developer or the CRM organisation that performed the work to access. Curation refers to the long-term preservation and retention of heritage assets and to providing access to them in a variety of forms.
Fragile heritage assets may need to be preserved in a special environment, and protected from light especially ultra-violet , humidity , fluctuations in temperature and in some cases, oxygen from the air. Large museums generally employ specialist conservators as well as education officers, archivists and researchers. Museums vary in their approach to interpretation ranging from traditional museums that display collections of artefacts behind glass, with labels identifying each item and giving provenance , to living museums which attempt to recreate a historical place or period so that people can experience it.
Within a single museum, a range of approaches may be used including interpretative panels, presenting artefacts in a realistic setting as they would have been experienced, and creating interactive and virtual exhibits. Museums also have processes to loan artefacts to other institutions or exhibitions.
Interpretative panels, and other signage, such as Blue plaques in the UK are important in ensuring that cultural heritage is understood in the context of the local community.
Preservation and restoration usually refers to architectural or engineering heritage assets such as heritage buildings or other structures and Heritage railways. The UK has a number of different forms of protection for buildings and structures, including listed buildings , conservation areas and Scheduled Ancient Monuments. In France a building or other structure can be protected as a Monument historique. Successful heritage management for a building generally requires that the building continues to be used, as disused buildings are likely to deteriorate quickly.
If the purpose for which the building was originally constructed is no longer viable, then other uses, often requiring sympathetic modification must be found. Heritage machinery, such as antique or vintage cars and heritage railways can best be understood and are best accessed and experienced by the public when they are in an operational condition.
Moreover, the heritage skills associated with such heritage assets, such as driving a steam locomotive, can only be maintained if the machinery is used. Restoration to a working, if not pristine condition, and creation of exact working replicas are therefore part of the practice of heritage management. The intangible cultural heritage consists of traditional skills, beliefs , traditions , oral traditions , music , songs , dance , drama etc. These cannot be stored in a museum but are constantly reinterpreted by the people in a particular cultural region.
The management of intangible cultural heritage is difficult as it requires consideration of the lives and living conditions of local communities. Some countries such as India and the members of the African union have recognised the importance of cultural resources and established government departments to manage them.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations.
Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Cultural landscape and Values heritage.
See also: Rescue archaeology. Main articles: Heritage interpretation , Museology , and Art conservation and restoration. See also: Historic preservation , Conservation area , and Building restoration.
See also: Intangible culture and Folklore. With few publications currently available that feature the public interpretation of maritime and submerged cultural resources, this edited volume will add to a limited body of knowledge in a field that is steadily growing. XX 1 , June, Underwater Sites.
Buy eBook. Buy Hardcover.
Buy Softcover. FAQ Policy. About this book The spectacle of archaeology stirs the public interest like few other topics. Show all. From the reviews: "This volume is … testimony to a much larger set of challenges that have come to define heritage conservation and museum practice today.